Detergent and Disinfectant in Pharmaceutical Industry

Detergent are surfactant or mixture or surfactants which have cleaning properties in dilute solution. Mainly four types of disinfectant are anionic, cationic, nonionic and amphoteric. All detergent have their specific use due to the nature of surfactant which found in detergents. In pharmaceutical industry nonionic detergents use for cleaning of equipment’s to maintain the product quality.
All detergent have free ions. When we clean the equipment detergents left free ions on surface. These free ions can affect the pharmaceutical product Stability.
Nonionic detergent are considered to be “mild” detergent. In the comparison of ionic detergent, Nonionic detergent is less likely to denature protein.
Reason of use nonionic detergent in pharmaceutical industry because they don’t ionize when mix in water. These type of detergent are manufacture to mix the same quantity acid or base. So that the pH of nonionic detergent remains neutral. These detergent are more effective against the oil surface and also generate less foam when mixed in water. Pharmaceutical detergent mainly found in liquid form.
Disinfectant are antimicrobial agent which may applied on nonliving surface to kill microorganism. It is not compulsory that disinfectant kill all microorganism. It’s a less effective against bacterial spore. Although some disinfectant such hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) applied in high concentration can kill bacterial spores. Antiseptics and antibiotic disinfectant are different from other antimicrobial agents. Antibiotics destroy microorganism within the body and antiseptics destroy microorganism on living tissue. Disinfectants are less effective than sterilization.
In pharmaceutical industry disinfectant are mainly used for cleaning purpose like floor. Disinfectant should be rotate because they are biocidals. Biocidal activity is measured by the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). When a microorganism is first time exposed to disinfectant, sub culturing not possible. It means microorganism have been killed. At which concentration microorganism is killed known as biocidal activity. If we expose same disinfectant routinely microorganism develop resistance against particular disinfectant and may alive. Microorganism don’t develop resistance against particular disinfectant we need disinfectant rotation.