Terrorism of Antibiotic Resistance
Key Facts of Antibiotics Resistance
- It’s a natural process but misuse and overuse of antibiotics in human and animals increasing the risk of antibiotic resistance this mean there will be no antibiotics remain which will cure the disease. This situation can be life-threatening in a serious infection.
- .Its a biggest threat to global health,food security and development.
- when a disease become drug resistant ultimately need other way to cure and its a cost effective process and increase mortality.
- Antibiotic Resistance can affect anyone, of any age in whole the world.
- All emerging infection like Tuberculosis,Pneumonia,and gonorrhoea are not treating due to resistance.
Antibiotics are drugs used against the living pathogen which cause infection. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria alter naturally or genetically (mutation) in response to these drugs.These resistant bacteria sometime also called superbug which infect the human or animal and infection cause by them become tough to treat than those cause by non resistant bacteria.
Antibiotic resistance is a global threat, and The US Center’s for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considers antibiotic resistance one of their top concerns. Infections with drug-resistant bacteria may lead to longer and more costly hospital care, and may increase the risk of dying from the infection.
In 2017,many more people could begin dying from conman bacterial infection.As resistance to antibiotics increases, disease from gonorrhoea to urinary tract infection becoming un-treatable-a worse condition as a world reaches a new tipping point in next year.
The danger posed by growing resistance to antibiotic should be ranked with terrorism on a list of threats to the nation, the government’s chief medical officer for England has said.
It will mean more resistant bacteria,this is dangerous point where no cure by a specific drug.The livestock farming has long played down any risk to human health caused by using a huge amount of antibiotics in farming, but threat is accepted now according to UN food and Agriculture organisation (FAO).
Colistin, a drug that is used more often in animals than people, is one example. It is now the only antibiotic left that works against some human infections, yet colistin resistance has developed, and spread worldwide in 2015. The European Medicines Agency says bacteria resistant to colistin probably arose in livestock, and that some EU countries could easily cut their use of this antibiotic 25-fold.
Mechanism of Antibiotic Resistance
The fundamental mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are:
- Enzymatic degradation of antibacterial drug
- Alteration of bacterial protein that are antimicrobial targets.
- Change in cell permeability to antibiotics
- Plasmid mediated through exchange of genes
10 most resistant bacteria against antibiotics
Reason for Antibiotic Resistance
1.0 The unnecessary prescription of antibiotics for viral infection against which they have no effect. Examples of illnesses that are caused viruses include:
- most sore throats (pharyngitis)
- coughs, colds and runny noses (rhinitis)
- sinus infections, respiratory tract infections (sinusitis, bronchitis)
- the flu (influenza virus)
Most viral illnesses do not need special medication and are “self-limiting”, meaning the patient’s own immune system can fight off the illness. A patient with a viral illness can also rest, drink, plenty of fluids and use symptomatic treatment, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen to relieve fever or body aches.
Sometimes, in complicated or prolonged viral infections, bacteria may invade as well, and cause what is known as a “secondary infection” In these cases, a health care practitioner can recommend an antibiotic, if one is needed.
2.0 The inadequate use by the patient, not respecting either dosage or duration of the treatment, which mean, some of the bacteria may survive and resistant.
3.0 No awareness of proper treatment for particular infection.
What can be done to limit this increasing risk of antibiotic resistance
The first step is the significant gaps in surveillance of antibiotic resistance, says the WHO . In 2001, WHO and the Council of the European Union issued global strategies and guidelines to help countries setting up systems to monitor antibiotic resistance and to implement efficient actions, including public awareness campaigns. Nowadays, the most immediate and urgent. In line with the WHO, the ECDC (European Center for disease Prevention and Control) considers that three strategic areas of intervention should be prioritized and that each one can play an important role:
- Prudent use of available antibiotics and, when possible, infection prevention through appropriate vaccination
- Hygienic precautions should be there to stop cross-transmission of resistant strains between persons, including screening for resistant strains and isolation of carrier patients.
- study and development of antibiotics with a novel mechanism of action.
- Awareness in people to take proper treatment of specific duration.
- all countries needs national action plans on antimicrobial resistance.
WHO response for antibiotic Resistance
Tackling antibiotic resistance is a high priority for WHO. A global action plan on antimicrobial resistance, including antibiotic resistance, was endorsed at the World Health Assembly in May 2015. The global action plan aims to ensure prevention and treatment of infectious diseases with safe and effective medicines.
The “Global action plan on antimicrobial resistance” has 5 strategic objectives:
- To improve awareness and understanding of antimicrobial resistance.
- To strengthen surveillance and research.
- To reduce the incidence of infection.
- To optimize the use of antimicrobial medicines.
- To ensure sustainable investment in countering antimicrobial resistance.
Heads of State at the United Nations General Assembly in New York in September 2016 committed to taking a broad, coordinated approach to address the root causes of AMR across multiple sectors, especially human health, animal health and agriculture. Countries reaffirmed their commitment to develop national action plans on AMR, based on the global action plan. WHO is supporting Member States to develop their own national action plans to address antimicrobial resistance.
In response to the first objective of the global action plan, WHO is leading a global, multi-year campaign with the theme “Antibiotics: Handle with care”. The campaign was launched during the first World Antibiotic Awareness Week in November 2015.