Dengue: An Increasing Global Threat

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dengue-image-1

INTRODUCTION:

  • Mosquito borne viral disease.
  • Transmission of dengue through female mosquitoes of species Aedes aegypti (Flavivirus).
  • Dengue virus has four closely related stereotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4).
  • Dengue fever is of major concern these days as it is proving to be a fatal disease with the progressive years. Although most of the people infected with dengue virus develops fever that is cured within specific time period with proper rest and treatment but it is proving as life threatening in case of severe illness which is categorised as “DENGUE HAEMORRHAGE FEVER” OR “DENGUE SHOCK SYNDROME”.

 

CYCLE OF TRANSMISSION:

cycle-of-transmission

SYMPTOMS:

  • High Fever
  • Severe Joint and Muscle Pain
  • Fatigue
  • Severe Headache
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Pain behind the eyes

TREATMENT:

  • No specific antiviral treatment
  • Management of fever through acetaminophen
  • Symptomatic treatment with analgesic and fluid replacement
  • Immunization in developmental stages can combat dengue. First vaccine Dengvaxia by Sanofi Pasteur was registered in 2015.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE:

globe

  • Overview: Name dengue originated from Swahili word for “bone- breaking fever” or the word for the “the walk of the dandie” in Spanish.
  • First probable case of dengue fever was in 265-420 AD in China.
  • According to WHO 390 million dengue infections are recorded per year out of which 96 million are manifested clinically till now.
  • Presently 40% of population is at risk and there is increase in 50-100 million cases every year.
  • According to National Vector Borne Disease Control Program there has been drastic increase in the number of people affected with dengue fever over the period of 7 years which is shown in the following graphs.

dengue-graph

graph

 

MISCONCEPTIONS:

misconception

There are certain misconceptions regarding dengue fever one of which is that it breeds in dirty water and surroundings. Actually it breeds well in clean stagnant water. Hence not only slums but even urban areas are equally affected by this disease.

It is true that it affects the healthy person but people having weaker immune system are at more risk. Even the well renowned celebrities like Vidya Balan, Zareen Khan, Shahid Kapoor Yash Chopra and many more suffered from dengue.

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About Author

Jasleen Kaur a post graduate M. Pharm (Q.A.) is a senior pharma writer. She is responsible for authoring, reviewing and editing a range of pharmaceutical documents, including SOP, Validation, Qualification etc.

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